# Angle

An **angle** (from the Lat. angulus, a corner, a diminutive, of which the
primitive form, angus) is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common
endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. Angles provide a means of expressing
the difference in slope between two rays meeting at a vertex without the need to
explicitly define the slopes of the two rays. Angles are studied in geometry and
trigonometry.

Euclid defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other. According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was used by Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and obtuse angles are certainly quantitative.

## Units of measure for angles

In order to measure an angle, a circle centered at the vertex is drawn. Since the circumference of a circle is always directly proportional to the length of its radius, the measure of the angle is independent of the size of the circle. Note that angles are dimensionless, since they are defined as the ratio of lengths.

- The
**degree**measure of the angle is the length of the arc, divided by the circumference of the circle, and multiplied by 360. The symbol for degrees is a small superscript circle, as in 360ï¿½. 2π radians is equal to 360ï¿½ (a full circle), so one radian is about 57ï¿½ and one degree is π/180 radians. - The
**radian**measure of the angle is the length of the arc cut out by the angle, divided by the circle's radius. The SI system of units uses radians as the (derived) unit for angles. - The
*grad*, also called*grade*or*gon*, is an angular measure where the arc is divided by the circumference, and multiplied by 400. It is used mostly in triangulation. - The
*point*is used in navigation, and is defined as 1/32 of a circle, or exactly 11.25ï¿½. - The
*full circle*or*full turns*represents the number or fraction of complete full turns. For example, π/2 radians = 90ï¿½ = 1/4 full circle

## Conventions on measurement

A convention universally adopted in mathematical writing is that angles given
a sign are positive angles if measured counterclockwise, and negative angles if
measured clockwise, from a given line. If no line is specified, it can be
assumed to be the x-axis in the Cartesian plane. In navigation and other areas
this convention may not be followed.

In mathematics radians are assumed unless specified otherwise because this
removes the arbitrariness of the number 360 in the degree system and because the
trigonometric functions can be developed into particularly simple Taylor series
if their arguments are specified in radians.

**See also**

2D | Two-dimensional coordinate system |

3D | Three-dimensional coordinate system |

Angle | Definition of an angle |

Axis | Definition of Cartesian axis |

Cartesian geometry | What is Cartesian geometry? |

Coordinate system | Definition of coordinates |

Curve | Definition of a curve |

Distance | Definition of distance |

Euclidean geometry | What is Euclidean geometry? |

Geometry | Definition of geometry |

Length | Definition of length |

Line | Definition of a line |

Origin | Definition of origin in a Cartesian coordinate system |

Perspective projection | Definition of perspective projection |

Planar homography | Definition of planar homography |

Plane | Definition of a plane |

Point | Definition of a point |

Point (kinematics) | Definition of a point (kinematics) |

Projective geometry | What is projective geometry? |

Segment (kinematics) | Definition of a segment (kinematics) |

Vanishing points | Definition of vanishing points and vanishing lines in perspective projection |

Vector | Definition of a vector |